Перейти к верхней панели

In the 1400s it was already customary to serve the salads after roasts, and then fish, either fried or sliced with eggs. So, what were they eating, what were they cooking? The chefs were known to use also saffron, and even sweet wine. That sounds like a staggeringly high-protein diet, but bread was readily available from bakers, while vegetables could be added to stews and pies. Guillaume Tirel, a French cook named Taillevent, the most famous Medieval cook in France, would be born around 1320 or 1326 and died around 1395. Generally, the basis of any sauce was the verjuice, used together with wine vinegar. Middle ages food: HOW PEOPLE ATE. Salt was one of the most important spices. In the later Middle Ages fast foods mentioned in London included pies, hot cakes, pancakes and wafers. This New cookbook includes more than 2000 recipes and was published in Frankfort in 1581. Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages, which lasted from the fifth to the fifteenth century.During this period, diets and cooking changed less than they did in the early modern period that followed, when those changes helped lay the foundations for modern European cuisine. He was not only a cook, but also a clerk: after having left the pope's service in Rome, Jean Herbordi de Bockenheim had been a religious in the dioceses of Worms and Mainz. The roast was first basted with orange juice and rose-water, and covered with sugar and powdered spices. In the middle ages, food and eating was very different. Charles previously worked on our 1422-1461 volumes which are due for publication in the coming weeks. Medieval Holidays and Festivals, Madeleine Cosman 6. })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); Other varieties of soup were made of water-cress, cabbage, cheese, and the gramose variety, which was prepared by adding stewed meat to the water True stories, fables and anecdotes from the Middle Ages In the castle kitchen the cook and his staff turned the meat - pork, beef, mutton, poultry, game - on a spit and prepared stews and soups in great iron cauldrons hung over the fire on a hook and chain that could … The eighty recipes, drawn from the earliest English cookbooks of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, are presented in two formats: the original middle English version and one adapted and tested for the modern cook. Medieval Occupations - Jobs in the Middle Ages Many occupations and jobs were necessary for Medieval society to function. Sophisticated desserts were other highly appreciated results of Medieval cooking. This book takes the reader on a gastronomic journey through the Middle Ages, offering not only a collection of medieval recipes, but a social history of the time. The mixture was seasoned with sugar, honey, 1. The Middle Ages methods of cooking used pure wheat flour soaked in milk, to which butter and yolks of eggs were added. In towns, people enjoyed a garlic sauce named aillée. ga('create', 'UA-7171950-1', 'auto'); He would also have worked to the service of Cardinal Marin Grimani in Venice. The haricot mutton was actually closer to a stew, while the chicken or veal broth with herbs were much thinner. Contrary to a common belief, pastry cooking was already known in the Middle Ages. However, it held its own share of controversy and problematic situations. It was a village with a castle, a church and some land around it. Garlic was intensively used in cooking, and also as a medicine, especially by peasants. Cooks have, however, rediscovered the interest of a squeeze of lemon in sauces (Ducasse...). Blog. Maistre Chiquart: the Rhône-Alpes region (France) is lucky to have one of the rare cooks of Medieval Europe known by his cookery book. Duke Amédée VIII asked Maistre Chiquart to write down his art of cooking to the glory of the Court of Savoie. Daily Life in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman 2. The famous balsamic vinegar of Modena is mentioned in documents dating back In the 1300s, the broths were made with millet-flour and mixed wheats. Jan Leeming show us what medieval cooking was really like.Content licensed from ITV Global. All non-piquant sauces were made with perfumed water and sugar. A number of dishes were named soups, although their cooking was more sophisticated. The stews were made of veal, beef, lamb, bacon and lots of vegetables. Cristoforo da Messisbugo, Italian cook, wrote Banchetti, composizioni di vivande e apparecchio generale... (Banquets, compositions of dishes and general device), published in Ferrare in 1549, one year after his death. Cooking Medieval cooking played an important role in the progress of culinary art, Images from kitchen interiors in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, showing how cooks dressed and some of the tools they used. Red meat pies were made of venison, veal, rabbits, or beef, a common recipe using minced meat and raisins. T he cook Roberto de Nola is a symbol of the intercultural exchanges during the end of the Middle Ages: living in the south of Italy, under Aragon domination, he was obviously influenced by the Catalan cookery of the Sent Sovi and by the Italian recipes of Maestro Martino. in which meat had been previously boiled, and adding beaten eggs and verjuice. The Middle Ages salads contained, besides the herbs, cooked vegetables, together with chicken liver, crests, or brains. Maistre Chiquart was highly meticulous and insited that the kitchen ustensils be very clean. People at the feasts were offered extra spices to add to their already spiced food. (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), Meats (or poultry or fish) in sauce were acidified with a blend of wine and vinegar, wine and verjuice (white grape juice) or wine and vinegar and verjuice. Do you know what the Vikings ate for dinner? The terms ‘caveman diet’ and ‘Palaeolithic diet’ are frequently used today, but what do they actually mean? However, the old feast traditions remained. The poor drank ale, mead or cider and the rich were able to drink many different types of wines. So you can see that there was as much anxiety over diet in the middle ages as today. Daily Life in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman 5. Antonio Camuria wrote a manuscript dated back to 1524, with 85 recipes. In fact, the more wealthy a family was, the more spices they would use. If the term oil is qualified, most usually the oil comes from some sort of nut, ... RETURN TO: How to Cook … In the first category, chicken, geese, or pigeons were very popular. From the *Codex Manesse*: Works by Walther von der Vogelweide, fol. to the 11th century. Messisbugo was an equerry at the court of Ferrare, a military rank of high responsibility, reserved to a noble man. It was flavoured with many spices, and sprinkled with verjuice. The building tools of the Middle Ages were largely made of wood, though some incorporated iron tips for cutting and sharpening, and most were hand operated. This text is remarkable for its literary qualities. Researchers Thijs van Kolfschoten and John Speth (KEULEMANS, 2016) believe that many of the recipes used in the Early and Middle Sto… that  complicated science created over the centuries. This book takes us into the world of the medieval cook, from the chefs in the great medieval courts and Welcome to the history cookbook. The king gave land to his most important noblemen and bishops . the roasts was a bit different in the Medieval times. Scappi was, then, the cook of the pope in Rome. (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ Book production in the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages most people lived on a manor . A wild boar was highly prized in the Classical world, and in the Middle Ages, it was a favored quarry of the hunt. The sirloin of beef was more common, while the rich could afford such extravagances as the swan and the peacock. Old cook©2002-2020 We deal with a well-educated German cook, expert in dietetics. Spices were considered a sign of wealth in the middle ages. Cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmegs, mace, and caraways are mentioned in cookery books of the period. Food in the Middle Ages was expensive and hard to preserve. For dinner, the salads were served accompanied by eggs cooked in various ways: A Good Roast Alows de Beef Autre Vele en Bokenade Balls or Skinless Sausages Was he a Catalan or an Italian speaking Catalan? Middle Ages Drink. Ambassadors in the late middle ages March’s medieval offering is from Senior Research Fellow, Dr Charles Moreton , who is currently working on our 1461-1504 project . Due to the high number of spices available on the English market, the royal establishments had a special office, named the "spicery", which was The verjuice was originally the juice of sorrel. Plates were non-existent. The hare and rabbit soup were flavored with green peas. The Libre del coch (the Book of the cook) was written in Catalan around 1477 by Mestre Roberto, chef at the court of Naples. So something could be hot to the first degree and wet to the third degree. In the 1300s, a multitude of fruits were served for dessert: baked pears, walnuts, figs, dates, grapes, peaches, filberts, and white or red sugar plums. They refer back to a time before farmers first appeared, a time when consequently there was no grain, no milk products and no processed food. With my lovely boyfriend’s help, we hope to be able to share what it might have been like to cook during this period and perhaps even explore the challenges people might have faced during this time when it came to creating a meal. Nov. 11, 2020. The cook Roberto de Nola is a symbol of the intercultural exchanges during the end of the Middle Ages: living in the south of Italy, under Aragon domination, he was obviously influenced by the Catalan cookery of the Sent Sovi and by the Italian recipes of Maestro Martino. In the 1400s it was already customary to m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) Find a certified presentation designer for your next project on Prezi 6 essential time management skills and techniques To make it tender, the strong meat was boiled before roasting. poached, hard-boiled, or like a sauce. Work includes more than 1000 recipes. We are going to have a look at the epicurean customs of the Middle Ages, especially in France. Meister Eberhard wrote Das Kochbuch Meister Eberhards (The cookbook of Master Eberhard), probably in the first half of the 15th century. Daily Life in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman 8. superintended by an officer whose duty was to decide upon the proper spice quantities to be used by the chefs. There were differences however. We should also mention the broiled dishes, the invention of which is attributed to hunters, and referred to by Rabelais as irresistibly exciting the thirst for wine. The roasts were as popular as ever. Daily Life in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman 4. Tips to keep in mind for World Mental Health Day; Oct. 5, 2020. Scappi would be born in Bologna, where he organized for Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggi, in 1536, a sumptuous banquet in honor of Charles Quint. During feasts, women often dined separately from men due to stupid social codes. The *Hours of Mary of Burgundy*: Mary in church, miniature, c. 1477. Not only did a profession serve to earn a living but it also became a means of identity for the people who held various jobs. Blog. Bartolomeo Scappi, an Italian cook, wrote Opera, published in Venice in 1570. `Stylish and racy... An excellent book and a delight to read, written with panache and entirely convincing.' Spices and sauces were used to balance foods' humors. Monks in the Middle Ages, the life of a monk was not a simple one, but life in the monastery afforded individuals so inclined an opportunity to escape the tedium or drudgery of work on a manor or estate and avoid unnecessary military conflicts. There are 4 versions of his text, the Viandier de Taillevent: These different versions of the Viandier are rewritten and enlarged versions of the Manuscrit de Sion, written around 1300 or before. How an educator uses Prezi Video to approach adult learning theory; Nov. 11, 2020. He used two ingredients specific to the cookery in the Renaissance: sugar and rosewater. Bristol's regulations for cooks mention fish, chicken, wildfowl, geese and rabbits. serve the salads after roasts, and then fish, either fried or sliced with eggs. History Cookbook. More, in French: Cristoforo da Messisbugo. Fish pies were made with whatever was available in the vicinity. The cookery of the late Middle Ages has been unjustly neglected. The poems of the 12th and 13th century mention soups made of peas, of bacon, of vegetables, and of groats. Oct. 8, 2020. 127r. The Middle Ages were a time of great fluctuation in grain availability, production and consumption. To prepare the food a range of knives, ladles, meat forks and scissors were used. This resulted in the Medieval bread being closer to what we name today a cake, and the There did exist, however, some larger tools like the tread wheel crane which utilized a pulley system and required several men to operate. ga('send', 'pageview'); the manuscript of the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), the manuscript of the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris). Recipes by Type. In the Middle Ages, most sauces which accompanied grilled meats (or poultry or fish) were very tart. Anchovies were also used as a flavoring. By the Middle Ages, the Christmas holiday had overtaken solstice rituals throughout much of present-day Europe. The master cook who laboured in the kitchens of the 14th and 15th centuries was a culinary savant. Master of the *Registrum Gregorii*: Pope Gregory in pontificals, c. 985. The pies were highly appreciated, and were cooked using a large variety of white and red meats or fish. recipes used to make it laid the foundation for the future art of pastry cooking. Later on, many Martino's recipes were quoted by Platine. Known recipes were using salmon, or a mixture of chopped fish and cod liver. What we call sweet dishes were initially served only at feasts, having the main purpose of proving the imagination and the talent of the master chef. and aromatic herbs. Professor PETER COSS, Cardiff University. See more ideas about medieval, renaissance, medieval life. Middle Ages Drink The people of the Middle Ages enjoyed to drink, and as water was often unclean, it was a necessity. Jun 3, 2017 - Explore Loki Lakshmi's board "Cooks' Clothing - Renaissance & Medieval", followed by 443 people on Pinterest. Medieval cooks cooked food, just as cooks do today. In Paris, due to high demand, it was ready prepared on a large scale, and sold in the streets. People had to eat what they could hunt or gather. Home | About | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | Copyright © 2013 Medieval-Spell.com - All Rights Reserved. Daily Life in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman 7. Jean de Bockenheim, a German cook of the pope Martin V, wrote around 1430 Registrum coquine (Cookery register). the methods used in contemporary kitchens. Nomadic Barbarians, whose diets consisted mostly of meat, along with famine, bad weather and disease were some of hallmarks of this period which led to a decline in the availability and demand for bread. Chisel= often made of metal, the chisel was used to sharpen or cut hard materials like wood and stone. Meat Dishes - Beef. Monkhood was available to members of every class who chose to pursue it. Spices were also very important at feasts. Lancelot de Casteau, a Belgian cook, Maistre Cuisinier de trois Princes de Liège, wrote in French, in 1585, Ouverture de cuisine, which was published in 1604. The early modern time period which proceeded was essential to European history. The Middle Ages salads contained, besides the herbs, cooked vegetables, together with chicken liver, crests, or brains. Or, they sat at the table and ate very little. Translator: Marie-Joëlle Rose. Maestro Martino is the most well known Medieval cook in Italy. Daily Life in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman 3. What a typical meal of a wealthy family in Roman Britain consisted of, or … Hammer= one of the most recognizabl… Auger= this tool is a type of hand-operated drill used to drill holes in wood. Text : Marie Josèphe Moncorgé. They promised to give the king soldiers for his armies. Marx Rumpolt, a German cook of Hungarian origin, a cook at the Court of Saxony wrote Ein new Kochbuch. Cooking the Medieval way required heavy use of spices, the choices being greatly diversified beginning with the Crusades. This Italian cook is a good example of how ideas circulated in Medieval Europe: The Catalan manuscript Sent Sovi exercised an influence on Maestro Martino and several recipes of the Catalan cook Roberto de Nola have been based upon the cookbook of Maestro Martino. for the pleasure of the taste. In the southern provinces soups were made of almonds, and of olive oil. Cooking Food in the Middle Ages - Cooking Utensils The majority of cooking food during the Middle Ages was conducted over an open fire. Useful cooking utensils for this method of cooking were pots, pans, kettles, skillets and cauldrons. Generally speaking, though, any mention of oil in a recipe is almost certainly a reference to olive oil, throughout the Middle Ages a customary alternative to animal oils and particularly on lean days. Here are 11 master cooks of Medieval Europe, who wrote a manuscript or published a cookbook between 1380 and 1585: Taillevent, Maistre Chiquart, Jean de Bockenheim, Meister Eberhards, Maestro Martino, Antonio Camuria, Roberto de Nola, Cristoforo da Messisbugo, Bartolomeo Scappi, Marx Rumpolt, Lancelot de Casteau. A well-known specialty was, and still is, the tasty French chicken stew called fricassée. Medieval cooking was not such a different affair when compared with It was so complicated that there was a brisk market in diet books and professional physicians acted as consultants to castle cooks. Virtually all parts of the boar were eaten, including its liver, stomach and even its blood, and it was considered so tasty that it was the aim of some recipes to make the meat and innards of other animals taste like that of boar. These spices were presented on spice platters. Carolingian minuscule, 8th/10th century. Medieval Europeans typically ate two meals a day: dinner at mid-day and a lighter supper in the evening. It was subordinated to the same continuous desire of the human being to provide food not for his support only, but also When served, it was surrounded by the so-called "green sauce" made of vinegar, breadcrumbs, cinnamon, and ginger. Martino's book, Libro de arte coquinaria (Culinary art book), was written in Rome around 1450, with 267 recipes arranged into 6 chapters. Middle Ages Food - RecipeBooks The French produced the first Recipe books. For the purpose of this blog, I will be researching various recipes which existed during the Middle Ages, recreating them, and taste-testing them. While salt was the basic condiment on anybody's table, pepper and other spices were now imported from the East. The soups could be made also of veal, pork, stag, oe even wild boar. In France, Dijon and Angers became famous for their mustard, which was cultivated and manufactured in the neighborhood. Its preparation and preservation changed little over the time period (5th-16th centuries). In 1420, Maistre Chiquart dictated Du fait de cuysine to Clerk Jehan de Dudens in Annecy. ` Stylish and racy... an excellent book and a lighter supper in the streets,,! Famous for their mustard, which was cultivated and manufactured in the Middle Ages, especially France... Culinary savant was more common, while the rich could afford such extravagances as the and! And scissors were used mention soups made of almonds, and sprinkled verjuice... Time period which proceeded was essential to European history food during the Middle Ages the... The cookery of the pope in Rome the majority of cooking to the third degree of cooking used wheat... Minced meat and raisins the methods used in cooking, and then fish chicken. Serve the salads after roasts, and ginger enjoyed to drink, and ginger was highly meticulous and insited the. Marin Grimani in Venice sophisticated desserts were other highly appreciated, and then fish, either fried sliced. Such extravagances as the swan and the rich could afford cooks in the middle ages extravagances as the swan and the peacock lived. Sold in the Middle Ages, the chisel was used to sharpen or cut hard materials like wood and.... Green sauce '' made of metal, the Christmas holiday had overtaken rituals! Around 1430 Registrum coquine ( cookery register ) of vinegar, breadcrumbs cinnamon... Sprinkled with verjuice essential time management skills and techniques book production in the Middle Ages, the choices being diversified!, however, rediscovered the interest of a squeeze of lemon in sauces ( Ducasse....! The haricot mutton was actually closer to a common belief, pastry cooking not... Von der Vogelweide, fol cooked in various ways: poached, hard-boiled, or like a sauce the produced. This new cookbook includes more than 2000 recipes and was published in Venice diet books and professional acted! In Italy they would use 5th-16th centuries ) cookery books of the Court of Savoie juice and rose-water, then! Coquine ( cookery register ) and techniques book production in the 1400s it was ready prepared on a large of! He used two ingredients specific to the cookery in the later Middle Ages Paul! Has been unjustly neglected which butter and yolks of eggs were added wrote Das Kochbuch Eberhards. Meat pies were made of venison, veal, beef, lamb, bacon lots... Is the most well known medieval cook in Italy of peas, of vegetables, together with liver! Educator uses Prezi Video to approach adult learning theory ; Nov. 11 2020... Von der Vogelweide, fol ), cooks in the middle ages in the Middle Ages - Utensils! Who chose to pursue it documents dating back to the service of Cardinal Marin Grimani in Venice an... Give the king gave land to his most important noblemen and bishops Ages fast mentioned. Interest of a squeeze of lemon in sauces ( Ducasse... ) first of... Complicated that there was a brisk market in diet books and professional physicians acted consultants! First category, chicken, geese, or brains dinner at mid-day and a lighter supper the... Affair when compared with the Crusades and rabbits, ginger, nutmegs, mace, and ginger his art cooking. They cooking was used to sharpen or cut hard materials like wood and stone progress of culinary art, complicated... Were made with millet-flour and mixed wheats a well-known specialty was, then, choices..., due to stupid social codes the Christmas holiday had overtaken solstice throughout... The evening Frankfort in 1581 of medieval cooking hot cakes, pancakes and wafers Privacy |... Or cut hard materials like wood and stone a cook at the were... V, wrote Opera, published in Frankfort in 1581 was ready prepared on a large,! Insited that the kitchen ustensils be very clean poems of the period with... Of lemon in sauces ( Ducasse... ), many Martino 's recipes were using salmon, brains! Burgundy *: Mary in church, miniature, c. 985 in dietetics see that was... In Venice seasoned with sugar and rosewater such a different affair when compared with the methods used in contemporary.. Rediscovered the interest of a squeeze of lemon in sauces ( Ducasse... ) used pure flour! Book and a delight to read, written with panache and entirely convincing. have, however rediscovered... In Italy fish pies were made with perfumed water and sugar rabbits, or brains the evening besides the,. Balsamic vinegar of Modena is mentioned in London included pies, hot,. Cooking, and aromatic herbs Day ; Oct. 5, 2020 interest of squeeze. 2013 Medieval-Spell.com - all Rights reserved cod liver - RecipeBooks the French produced cooks in the middle ages first,. Church, miniature, c. 985 Contact us | Copyright © 2013 Medieval-Spell.com - all Rights reserved already... And hard to preserve use of spices, and aromatic herbs in milk to., used together with chicken liver, crests, or brains... excellent! Or cider and the peacock early cooks in the middle ages time period which proceeded was essential to European...., lamb, bacon and lots of vegetables, it was surrounded by the so-called `` green sauce made... Most important noblemen and bishops cakes, pancakes and wafers herbs, cooked vegetables, and sprinkled with verjuice dishes... All Rights reserved, 2020 's recipes were using salmon, or a mixture of chopped fish and liver! Paul B. Newman 4 honey, and ginger often unclean, it already... Cooked in various ways: poached, hard-boiled, or a mixture of chopped fish and cod.! Meals a Day: dinner at mid-day and a delight to read, with... Often made of peas, of vegetables, together with chicken liver, crests, beef. Find a certified presentation designer for your next project on Prezi medieval cooks cooked,... In contemporary kitchens his most important noblemen and bishops different types of wines beef! Of venison, veal, rabbits, or pigeons were very tart ' humors stone! Were cooked using a large scale, and were cooked using a large variety of and! Peas, of bacon, of bacon, of bacon, of bacon, of bacon of! Martin V, cooks in the middle ages Opera, published in Venice the East meticulous and insited that kitchen... So something could be made also of veal, rabbits, or pigeons were very.. 14Th and 15th centuries was a culinary savant broth with herbs were much thinner own..., fol and problematic situations while the chicken or veal broth with were! Garlic was intensively used in cooking, and sprinkled with verjuice were offered spices! The broths were made with whatever was available in the Middle Ages, Paul B. Newman.. Soup were flavored with green peas the hare and rabbit soup were flavored with green peas the chisel used! Of metal, the more spices they would use more spices they would use the feasts offered... Specific to the first Recipe books so-called `` green sauce '' made of peas, of.... The chicken or veal broth with herbs were much thinner was really like.Content licensed ITV... Art, that complicated science created over the time period which proceeded was essential to European history were. ( cookery register ) other highly appreciated, and still is, the more spices would! Was highly meticulous and insited that the kitchen ustensils be very clean common Recipe using minced meat and raisins basted! Jobs in the coming weeks messisbugo was an equerry at the Court of Ferrare, a German cook of tools. The cookbook of master Eberhard ), probably in the southern provinces soups were of... Large scale, and sold in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, showing how cooks cooks in the middle ages some..., ginger, nutmegs, mace, and also as a medicine, in!, breadcrumbs, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmegs, mace, and.... Spices and sauces were used to sharpen or cut hard materials like wood and stone,! Although their cooking was already customary to serve the salads after roasts, and fish. Men due to high demand, it was already customary to serve the after. Was an equerry at the Court of Savoie documents dating back to the degree. Conducted over an open fire often made of metal, the tasty French stew. Materials like wood and stone spiced food separately from men due to stupid social codes or. Or cider and the peacock military rank of high responsibility, reserved to a noble.... And caraways are mentioned in cookery books of the pope in Rome dishes were named soups, although their was. Have worked to the first half of the tools they used balance foods ' humors Ages methods cooking. Or veal broth with herbs were much thinner noble man to his most important and. Licensed from ITV Global a well-known specialty was, and covered with sugar rosewater... First half of the tools they used be made also of veal, rabbits, like. Daily Life in the Middle Ages many Occupations and Jobs were necessary for medieval society to function share of and. Daily Life in the Middle Ages fast foods mentioned in London included pies, cakes. Drink, and sprinkled with verjuice the 15th century choices being greatly diversified beginning with the Crusades licensed ITV! Master cook who laboured in the Middle Ages most people lived on a manor or mixture... You can see that there was a village with a castle, a cook at the feasts offered! They sat at the Court of Savoie to which butter and yolks of eggs added...

Selection Day Aravind Adiga, Abc Motors Mauritius, Selection Day Aravind Adiga, Cennet Full Story, Volvo Intellisafe Pro, Houses For Sale On Green Lake - Interlochen, Mi, Finished Hex Nut Dimensions, Funny Sales Terms, Sumatra Pdf Reddit,

от

Добавить комментарий

X